During your U.S. citizenship test, you have the right to ask the officer to repeat or rephrase a question until you fully understand the question, unless you simply do not understand English. It is much better than trying to guess his/her question and take the risk of answering incorrectly.
You could say:
“Would you please repeat that using different words?”
“Will you please repeat the question?”
“Could you please speak a little slower?”
If you can’t remember the answer and you need more time, you could say:
“I know the answer but I just can’t remember it right now. May I have a moment to think about it?”
“I know the answer but I just can’t remember it right now. May we come back to the question later?”
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